Pneumatophores to about 20 cm tall, pencil-like. Grey and White Mangroves Grow around the coast from northern Australia to South Australia. Berjak, P., Campbell, G.K., Huckett, B.I. The leaves are glossy green above with a distinctive pale and slightly hairy, g… The increase of Avicennia is however a symptom of a more serious issue, that is the impact of increased sedimentation rates within harbours whose catchments have been seriously degraded and/or deforested. In the mangroves of southern Africa. 2010 Sachs, J.P. and Ladd, S.N. Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. Revealing the relationship between plants and fungi is very important in understanding biodiversity maintenance, community stability, and ecosystem functioning. http://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T178828A7619457.en, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Raimondo et al. The strong petiole (leaf stalk) turns yellowish on older leaves and is up to 2cm long (5). 2003;238. Leaf-root interaction in the uptake of ammonium by Zostera marina. Van Wyk, A.E., Van den Berg, E., Coates Palgrave, M. & Jordaan, M. 2011. Login to add your Comment Vierh._PROTA", "FAO Corporate Document Repository_Sudan", "A Systematic Revision of the Mangrove Genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Avicennia_marina&oldid=993018311, Articles with dead external links from May 2016, Use Australian English from November 2017, All Wikipedia articles written in Australian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 10:32. 3 subspecies of Avicennia marina are recognised. Jacana, Johannesburg. much confusion surrounded the use of leaf size and shape in specific descriptions. Although mangroves are often heavily exploited, Avicennia marina is … It occurs in New Zealand between 34 and 38 degrees south; its Māori name is mānawa. In Australia, it extends much farther south than other mangroves, occurring in every mainland state. These allow the plant to absorb oxygen, which is deficient in its habitat. Small tree to 6m+ high; bark is smoth & grey in colour. Mabberley's Plant-book, edn 3. The 2000 runners up. Laboratory mesocosm incubations were undertaken to investigate the influence of burrowing shrimp Trypaea australiensis (marine yabby) on sediment reworking, physical and chemical sediment characteristics and nutrients in sandy sediments receiving mangrove (Avicennia marina) leaf litter. Leaveso are arranged opposite and are hairy on the reverse side, having special glands for releasing excess salt. ); mangal, towozi, txomahati (Xironga); isikhungathi (isiXhosa, isiZulu) - these from Van Wyk et al. Courtesy of Nikon Small World. Flora Zeylanica. australasica but under different climates: subsp. Later generations of Western academics Latinized his name as 'Avicenna'. Wildlife Society of South Africa, Durban. & Ngoc Nam, V. (2010). ); witseebasboom (Afr. Before experimenting, please be aware that every swamp where this tree grows naturally in South Africa is protected and you will need a permit to collect seed in this country, or an import permit and phytosanitary certificates to bring seed in from elsewhere in its range. Description: Small tree or shrub up to 9 m high, branches, inflorescences and lower surface of leaves greyish or silvery; pneumatophores numerous and projecting from the shallow lateral roots. Struik, Cape Town. Fruit are dispersed from the parent tree by tidal water movement. Despite the superficially similar appearance of many Mangroves, species belong to a number of different flowering … They thus sailed past all the Avicennia localities in the Atlantic without stopping, and only made landfall in the Indian Ocean. Pollinators and insect interactions are unknown, but Palmer & Pitman (1973) note that the tree provides nesting sites for several coastal bird species. Johannes van Someren, Amsterdam. It is prominently characterised by its elongated and pointed leaves that are coloured darker green on the upperside and paler, whitish on the underside. Conservation status: native Flowering time: April — June. As with other Avicennia species, it has a… Its distribution is disjunct in Western Australia; the population of the Abrolhos Islands is 300 km (190 mi) further south than the nearest population of Shark Bay. Soil requirements for this tree are unknown, but probably include anaerobic mud. The Kiswahili name Uchu (coastal Kenyan) and Mtswi (Giriyama) are recorded on herbarium specimens, as are many other vernacular names within its vast range. Vierh. Gomes e Sousa, A. Leaves measure up to 8 cm in length and 5 cm in width. The fruit contains large cotyledons that surround the new stem of a seedling. Estuaries 18:271-278 . Primary productivity in Halodule wrightii: a comparison of techniques based on daily carbon budgets. That the earliest published reference should be to an Indian Ocean species and not to an Atlantic one is not remarkable when one considers the route that the early Portuguese and Dutch traders used between Europe and India. Dictionary of names for southern African trees. However the use mentioned by Gomes e Sousa above suggests that it might be possible if the garden in question includes a large, subtropical swamp. It is distributed along Africa's east coast, south-west, south and south-east Asia, and Australia. Linnaeus, C. 1747. (Also in NT, WA and SA). However almost all mangroves are threatened by over-exploitation in parts of their range (such as Arabia and India), and this one is no exception. Naidoo, Gonasageran (2016). Another variety, Avicennia marina var. This colonisation of southerly climes may have occurred relatively recently, perhaps several thousand years ago, when they were transferred by the Leeuwin Current. 2000: Avicennia marina (mangrove) leaf (40x), Fluorescence and Differential Interference Contrast. Read on and find out. Field guide to trees of southern Africa. [16], Grey mangroves grow as a shrub or tree to a height of 3 to 10 m (9.8 to 32.8 ft), or up to 14 m in tropical regions. The young tree forms a low, dense bushy crown. Vierh. Flowers creamy yellow, small, in dense round heads in leaf axils or terminally, on short, square stalks, sweetly scented. The habit is a gnarled arrangement of multiple branches. This produces a large, fleshy seed, often germinating on the tree and falling as a seedling. Curiously, experiments at the then University of Durban-Westville (G.S. Small to medium-sized tree (3-11 m), main trunk straight, up to 76 cm in diameter, with much branched, rounded crown. Extensive underground root system with 'pencil roots' (pneumatophores or breathing roots) up to 90 mm long, sticking up out of the mud in dense stands spreading out from tree. australasica along a natural salinity gradient [28 to 49 parts per thousand (ppt)] and compared with two subspecies grown naturally in similar soil salinities to those of subsp. A systematic revision of the mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia. Palmer, E. & Pitman, N. 1973. Burrows D. The role of insect leaf herbivory on the mangroves Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa. And finally, being a mangrove this tree needs prodigious amounts of water. Vierh is a widespread mangrove species along the southeast coasts of China. It is one of the few mangroves found in the arid regions of the coastal Arabian Peninsula, mainly in sabkha environments in the United Arab Emirates,[3] Qatar,[4] Oman,[5] as well as in similar environments on both side of the Red Sea (in Yemen,[6] Saudi Arabia,[7] Egypt,[1] Eritrea,[8] and Sudan),[9] and Qatar[10] and southern Iran[11] along the Persian Gulf coast. It has been reported to tolerate extreme weather conditions, high winds, and various pests and diseases. A number of botanists have proposed division of the species, but currently three subspecies are recognised: Data related to Avicennia marina at Wikispecies Keith Coates Palgrave's Trees of southern Africa. Rhizophora mucronata, Avicennia marina, Xylocarpus granatum, and Heritiera littoralis species. Mabberley, D.J. Common name: Grey Mangrove. Dendrologia de Moçambique. 1977. the d13C values for leaf wax n-C 31 and n-C 33 alkanes, bulk leaf matter and leaf total lipid extracts from Avicennia marina (gray mangrove) trees growing along the Brisbane River estuary in Queensland, Austra-lia. Red List of South African Plants 2009. / Daphne Zbaeren-Colbourn, Bern, Switzerland. Common names: white mangrove (Eng. Vierh. Grey mangroves grow as a shrub or tree to a height of 3 to 10 m (9.8 to 32.8 ft), or up to 14 m in tropical regions. Scientific Name: Avicennia marina Arabic Name: Qurm قرم IUCN Red List Endangered Status: Least Concern The grey mangrove (Avicennia marina) is named after Avicenna or Ibn Sina (AD 980-1037), one of the most significant Islamic philosopher-scientists.It is a mangrove tree which can thrive in both high salinity and freshwater habitats.. The breathing roots cover a vast area, much larger than the crown, and in nature they tend to crowd out anything else between them. 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