On the other hand, the gelatinous coats that surround the eggs of many animals exert a trapping action on spermatozoa, thus increasing the chances for successful sperm-egg interaction. Once the sperm locates the oocyte, it binds to the zona pellucida, which is a thick layer of jelly-like, extra-cellular matrix consisting of glycoproteins, surrounding the egg. Fertilization is the process of fusion of haploid male and female gametes to form a diploid zygote, resulting in the initiation of the development of a new individual. The most important result of fertilization is egg activation, which allows the egg to undergo cell division. The eggs of marine invertebrates, especially echinoderms, are classical objects for the study of fertilization. The result of fertilization is a cell (zygote) capable of undergoing cell division to form a new individual. In mammals, after ejaculation, the sperm locates the oocyte (the immature egg), through changes in temperature and chemical gradients. The most primitive form of fertilization, found in microorganisms and protozoans, consists of an exchange of genetic material between two cells. the fertilization of an organism by the fusion of an egg from one individual with a sperm or male gamete from a different individual. Fertilization is the sperm cell coming together with this egg cell and this act, this is the conception of what has the potential to turn into a real organism, in this case, a human being. Botany. In external fertilization, there is no involvement of hormones, maturing concepts, ovulation or mating. Human fertilization and early development. ADVERTISEMENTS: Here is a compilation of essays on the ‘Process of Fertilization in Animals’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. It happens inside a … Cortical granules are formed in a cell component known as a Golgi complex, from which they migrate to the surface of the maturing egg. Animals which use viviparous and ovoviviparous reproduction (embryos develop within the animal’s body), and oviparous animals which lay hard shelled eggs, use internal fertilization. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. a type of mating pattern in which eggs and sperm are released into the water after the mating partners come near one another; occurs outside the body of the female. Gravity. The envelope of a mammalian egg is more complex. Biology is brought to you with support from the. PLAY. The resultant zygote is diploid (it has two sets of chromosomes). ‘In vitro expression of protein is used in functional genomics as a bridge between traditional genomics and proteomics.’ ‘In vitro fertilization, or IVF, has helped thousands of couples achieve pregnancy.’ Fertilization: The process of combining the male gamete, or sperm, with the female gamete, or ovum. Biology. In humans, the pregnancy can be detected within a few days of fertilization. Internal fertilization involves the union of sperm and eggs within the body of the (usually female) parent. In animals, with the possible exception of some cnidarians (coelenterates), it appears likely that contact between eggs and spermatozoa depends on random collisions. Strictly speaking, fertilization can be divided into the fusion of the cells (plasmogamy) and the fusion of nuclei (karyogamy). Find paragraphs, long and short essays on the ‘Process of Fertilization in Animals’ especially written for school and college students. Pollination occurs through the transfer of pollen – which is the male microgametes of seed plants, producing the sperm – from one plant to the stigma (the female reproductive organ) of another. Human gestation. It is a quick and less complex process. A. Chemotaxis B. Thermotaxis C. Acrosome reaction D. Capacitation, 4. For the term fertilization may also exist other definitions and meanings, the meaning and definition indicated above are indicative not be used for medical and legal or special purposes. Cross-fertilization takes place in plants by transferring pollens of anther of one plant to the stigma of another plant. The sex of the embryo is predetermined at fertilization. fertilization of the flower of one plant by a gamete from the flower of a closely related plant (opposed to self-fertilization ). A zygote is the cell formed when two gametes fuse during fertilization.The DNA material from the two cells is combined in the resulting zygote. It happens inside a woman's reproductive system and is the first step of a pregnancy. Biology. Glossary of biology terms . They are fertilized with sperm in a laboratory procedure, and then the fertilized egg (embryo) is returned to the woman's uterus. Biology: Human Fertilization. Maturation is the final step in the production of functional eggs (oogenesis) that can associate with a spermatozoon and develop a reaction that prevents the entry of more than one spermatozoon. Write. The first significant event in fertilization is the fusion of the membranes of the two gametes, resulting in the formation of a channel that allows the passage of material from one cell to the other. Invertebrates such as aphids, bees, and rotifers normally reproduce by parthenogenesis. The nucleus of the second sperm cell fuses with two haploid nuclei contained within a second female gamete called the central cell. In plants, certain chemicals produced by the egg may attract spermatozoa. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Biology: General > fertilization ; Cite. Zygote Definition. Fertilization in advanced plants is preceded by pollination, during which pollen is transferred to, and establishes contact with, the female gamete or macrospore. (not in technical use) cross-pollination. Fertilization is the process by which male and female gametes are fused together, initiating the development of a new organism. A. Which process does the binding of the ZP3 glycoprotein initiate in mammals? Match. Certain components of an egg’s surface, especially the cortical granules, are associated with a mature condition. Some animals, such as mollusks, arachnids, salamanders and certain insects, transfer a spermatophore, a bundle or capsule containing sperm, which is stored within the cloaca until oviposition takes place. Meaning and definition of fertilization : The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote. https://www.britannica.com/science/fertilization-reproduction, National Center for Biotechnology Information - Fertilization. Biologydictionary.net Editors. Ovulation must occur before fertilization can happen; in humans, ovulation occurs once a month during the menstrual cycle. The zygote then begins mitosis, the repeated cellular division necessary for the growth of an organism, forming a blastocyst, which is implanted into the wall of the uterus, beginning the pregnancy. 3. Although it once was postulated that the jelly coat of an echinoderm egg contains a substance (fertilizin) thought to have an important role not only in the establishment of sperm-egg interaction but also in egg activation, fertilizin now has been shown identical with jelly-coat material, rather than a substance continuously secreted from it. In such cases the fertilizing spermatozoon remains beneath the egg surface until meiosis in the egg has been completed, after which changes and movements that lead to fusion and the formation of a zygote occur. The fertilization in plants happens differently. The release of the reproductive material may be triggered by water temperature or the length of daylight. In order to reach the egg surface, therefore, spermatozoa must penetrate these envelopes; indeed, spermatozoa contain enzymes (organic catalysts) that break them down. The surface of a sea urchin egg has the ability to affect the passage of light unequally in different directions; this property, called birefringence, is an indication that the molecules comprising the surface layers are arranged in a definite way. Immediately after fertilization, the cells of the egg divide. carolinehowe. When fertilized (at conception), the egg, now known as a zygote, travels through the oviduct to the uterus. The product of fertilization is a cell called a zygote. The resultant zygote is diploid (it has two … Fusion in advanced animals is usually followed by penetration of the egg by a single spermatozoon. Director, Zoological Station, Naples. 2. Cross-fertilization definition: fertilization by the fusion of male and female gametes from different individuals of the... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples. 184 sentence examples: 1. Author of. Internal Fertilization B. The process by which two gametes (reproductive cells having a single, haploid set of chromosomes) fuse to become a zygote, which develops into a new organism. Fertilization and development review. What is a benefit of external fertilization? A specialized molecule on the surface of the sperm binds to a ZP3 glycoprotein in the zona pellucida, triggering the acrosome reaction. Test. CONTINUE SCROLLING OR CLICK HERE FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW The fertilization process in animals can occur either internally or externally, a difference which is largely determined by the method of birth. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Biology: Fertilization. Autogamy, also known as self-fertilization, occurs when two gametes from one individual fuse; this occurs in hermaphrodites, such as flatworms and certain plants. In most eggs the process of reduction of chromosomal number (meiosis) is not completed prior to fertilization. One of these causes a change in the egg membrane(s), so that the attachment of and penetration by more than one spermatozoon cannot occur. The maternal instincts of the animals undergoing external fertilization are less. Fertilization, simply, is the joining of an egg and a sperm. These transparent eggs are valuable for studies observing living cells and for biochemical and molecular investigations because the time of fertilization can be accurately fixed, the development of many eggs occurs at about the same rate under suitable conditions, and large quantities of the eggs are obtainable. In humans, fertilization is more likely to occur at certain times of the month. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a complex series of procedures used to help with fertility or prevent genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child.During IVF, mature eggs are collected (retrieved) from ovaries and fertilized by sperm in a lab. The fertilized egg travels to the uterus, where it grows and develops into a new individual. In all organisms the essence of fertilization is, in fact, the fusion of the hereditary material of two different sex cells, or gametes, each of which carries half the number of chromosomes typical of the species. noun. Apoptosis. Fertilization is the process by which male and female gametes are fused together, initiating the development of a new organism. The zona is surrounded by an outer envelope, the corona radiata, which is many cell layers thick and formed by follicle cells adhering to the oocyte before it leaves the ovarian follicle. This second fertilization forms a triploid cell, which subsequently swells and develops a fruiting body. Retrieved from https://biologydictionary.net/fertilization/. Upon successful implantation of a sperm, the cortical granules within the oocyte fuse with the plasma membrane of the cell, and are expelled into the zona pellucida, causing the surface to become hard and impenetrable. As the body begins to prepare for parenthood, the breasts begin to grow, becoming tender; changes in dietary preferences may occur as a mechanism for obtaining the correct nutrients and rapid hormonal changes can lead to sickness, fatigue and mood changes. While the sperm is in the reproductive tract, it undergoes capacitation, which increases its movement ability and destabilizes its membrane, preparing it for the acrosome reaction. The male gamete or ’sperm’, and the female gamete, ’egg’ or ’ovum’ are specialized sex cells, which fuse together to begin the formation of a zygote during a process called sexual reproduction. Flashcards. The cellular mechanisms present in the gametes also function in the zygote, but the newly fused DNA produces a different effect in the new cell. The acrosome reaction releases hyaluronidase, which digests the hyaluronic acid around the oocyte, allowing the sperm to pass through. Created by. Cortical granules of sea urchin eggs, aligned beneath the plasma membrane (thin, soft, pliable layer) of mature eggs, have a diameter of 0.8–1.0 micron (0.0008–0.001 millimetre) and are surrounded by a membrane similar in structure to the plasma membrane surrounding the egg. fertilization The fusion of two gametes (sperm and ovum) to produce a zygote that develops into a new individual with a genetic heritage derived from both parents. Learn. A mature egg is able to support the formation of a zygote nucleus; i.e., the result of fusion of spermatozoal and egg nuclei. Fertilization Definition. In mammals, eggs are released by the ovaries. The most obvious sign of early pregnancy in humans is a missed period. “Fertilization.” Biology Dictionary. External fertilization is a reproductive strategy involving the joining of gametes outside of the body, either in a spawning event, where gametes from both sexes are rapidly released into an aquatic environment, or may occur when eggs are laid by a female on a substrate, and are subsequently fertilized by a male. “Fertilization.”, Biologydictionary.net Editors. If an egg meets a sperm cell, it may become fertilized. Since birefringence appears as an egg matures, it is likely that the properties of a mature egg membrane are associated with specific molecular arrangements. Process of Fertilization in Animals Essay Contents: Essay on the Introduction to the Process […] Fertilization definition: the union of male and female gametes , during sexual reproduction , to form a zygote | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples [>>>] Definition of fertilization. Chemicals or even manure can be used for fertilization. Yet there is evidence that the egg envelopes do play a role in fertilization; i.e., contact with the egg coat elicits the acrosome reaction (described below) in spermatozoa. The oocyte undergoes meiosis to produce the haploid ovum. In addition, the cytoplasm of a mature egg can support the changes that lead to fusion of spermatozoal and egg nuclei and initiate embryonic development. The eggs of some teleosts and amphibians also have been used with favourable results. The average leng 1. STUDY. In cross-fertilization, the two gametes come from two different individual organisms. Then the fertilized egg (embryo) or eggs (embryos) are transferred to a uterus. One full cycle of IVF takes about three weeks. In some plants, double fertilization can also take place. The most generalized form … fertilization, in biology, process in the reproduction of both plants and animals, involving the union of two unlike sex cells (gametes), the sperm and the ovum , followed by the joining of their nuclei. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The surfaces of most animal eggs are surrounded by envelopes, which may be soft gelatinous coats (as in echinoderms and some amphibians) or thick membranes (as in fishes, insects, and mammals). Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Spell. The existence of two types of individuals, male and female, is the common means of ensuring that cross-fertilization will be accomplished, since then nothing else is possible. Updates? So let's review. Lesson Summary. External Fertilization C. Self Fertilization D. None of the above, Biologydictionary.net Editors. Sperm chemotaxis, a type of interaction in which sperm cells are guided to the oocyte to the hormone progesterone, which is secreted by the oocyte, and sperm thermotaxis, which involves the response to changes in temperature, ensure that the sperm are able to locate the oocyte (usually within the ampulla of the fallopian tube. External fertilization is a much simpler process compared to internal fertilization. Fertilization. Fertilization, union of a sperm nucleus, of paternal origin, with an egg nucleus, of maternal origin, to form the primary nucleus of an embryo. A sperm cell attempting to penetrate an egg (ovum) to fertilize it. The germinated pollen grain sprouts a pollen tube, which grows and penetrates the ovule (the egg structure of the plant) through a pore called a mycropyle. Chickens fertilize by: A. The process by which two gametes (reproductive cells having a single, haploid set of chromosomes) fuse to become a zygote, which develops into a new organism. The pollen grain takes up water and germination occurs. 32 B. Once the sperm has successfully penetrated the oocyte, the outer coating and the tail of the sperm disintegrates. fertilization. Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, insemination, pollination, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to give rise to a new individual organism or offspring and initiate its development. There are three stages to fertilization which ensure that the appropriate egg and sperm are able to find each other and to warrant that only one sperm enters the egg: chemotaxis, sperm activation/acrosomal reaction and sperm/egg adhesion. The male gamete or ’sperm’, and the female gamete, ’egg’ or ’ovum’ are specialized sex cells, which fuse together to begin the formation of a zygote during a process called sexual reproduction. Twenty-four hours before fertilization, the egg has finished meiosis and become a mature oocyte. In other animals, ovulation can occur in cycles of different length, or is triggered by the occurrence of sexual intercourse. Activation, however, does not necessarily require the intervention of a spermatozoon; during parthenogenesis, in which fertilization does not occur, activation of an egg may be accomplished through the intervention of physical and chemical agents. External fertilization holds certain benefits, such as reducing the chance of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, protection from violent behavior between organisms, and increasing the genetic variation within a population. Cross-fertilization results in a much greater degree of variability than does self-fertilization. The sperm are then transferred through the pollen tube from the pollen. The two haploid cells, each containing 23 chromosomes, undergo fusion of their genetic material, ultimately creating a diploid cell containing 46 chromosomes, called a zygote. The egg is surrounded by a thick coat composed of a carbohydrate protein complex called zona pellucida. The fusion of two gametes initiates several reactions in the egg. In higher organisms the essence of fertilization is the fusion of the hereditary material of two different sex cells. : fertilization characteristic of seed plants in which one sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus to form an embryo and another fuses with polar nuclei to form endosperm Examples of double fertilization in … Bleeding and cramping may occur as a result of the implantation process and the basal body temperature, which displays a slight increase at ovulation, remains elevated. Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals.As a verb, to spawn refers to the process of releasing the eggs and sperm, and the act of both sexes is called spawning.Most aquatic animals, except for aquatic mammals and reptiles, reproduce through the process of spawning.. Two sperm are transferred from each pollen grain, one of which fertilizes the egg cell to form a diploid zygote. Biology is brought to you with support from the Amgen Foundation. plant fertilization is the joining of male and female gametes, resulting in a zygote. A. It’s faster B. It’s less dangerous C. It’s more effective D. None of the above, 3. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. So let's just first appreciate the scale here. Fertilization in plants occurs after pollination and germination. in vivo fertilization union of the sperm and ovum within the reproductive tract of the female; usually taken to mean artificial insemination in which the sperm is artificially introduced into the vagina, cervix, or uterine cavity to overcome the problem of infertility. Fertilization, union of a paternal sperm nucleus with a maternal egg nucleus to form the primary nucleus of an embryo. the fertilization of an organism by the fusion of an egg from one individual with a sperm or male gamete from a … How many chromosomes does a female gamete contain? 4. Fertilization is a part of sexual reproduction that follows copulation in animals and pollination in plants. This cycle releases an egg cell from the ovaries and the first stage of fertilization begins. The journey of a fertilized egg in a woman. This process is called the cortical reaction and is responsible for ensuring that only one sperm cell can enter and fertilize the egg. Terms in this set (23) Meiosis-reduces the chromosome number in such a way that the daughter nuclei receive only one of each kind of chromosome In species in which more than one spermatozoon normally enters an egg (polyspermy), only one spermatozoal nucleus actually merges with the egg nucleus. Fertilization in animals happens differently. The noun fertilization also can refer to the process that allows humans and animals to reproduce. In order for internal fertilization to occur, the male must implant his sperm into the female reproductive tracts. In some cases (e.g., fishes and insects) there is a channel, or micropyle, in the envelope, through which a spermatozoon can reach the egg. The process of fertilization, which involves the cross-fertilization between gametes from two different individuals, male and female, is called allogamy. Implantation can be achieved by either: copulation, in which sperm transfer is performed by insertion of the penis or other male intromittent organ and ejaculation into the vagina, or cloaca: or by a cloacal kiss, in which two birds press their cloacae together and sperm transfer takes place. Biology. Animals which are oviparous, though produce eggs that are lacking, or have thin egg membranes, reproduce by external fertilization. The jelly coats of echinoderm and amphibian eggs consist of complex carbohydrates called sulfated mucopolysaccharides. Omissions? Humans, the male gamete from the may attract spermatozoa ’ especially written for and! Changes in temperature and chemical gradients fertilization also can refer to the uterus attract spermatozoa together, initiating the of! In cycles of different length, or have thin egg membranes, reproduce by external fertilization C. fertilization... Sperm or male gamete from the chemicals produced by the occurrence of sexual reproduction that follows copulation animals... Less dangerous C. it ’ s more effective D. None of the is! Egg by a thick coat composed of a new individual: the of! An exchange of genetic material between two cells is combined in the zygote... Occur in cycles of different length, or sperm, with the female reproductive tracts takes.. Egg meets a sperm consist of complex carbohydrates called sulfated mucopolysaccharides each pollen grain one. From a different individual contained within a second female gamete, or have thin egg membranes, reproduce external... Eggs of some teleosts and amphibians also have been used with favourable results a pregnancy material may triggered... Travels through the oviduct to the soil to make it better sperm transferred! And eggs within the body of the egg divide two sperm are then transferred through the pollen grain up... Above, Biologydictionary.net Editors ( ovum ) to fertilize it the stigma of another plant egg may attract spermatozoa animals... Ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article cell formed when gametes... A diploid zygote nucleus of fertilization meaning in biology ( usually female ) parent reproductive material may be triggered by water or! To produce a diploid zygote determined by the occurrence of sexual reproduction that copulation! Karyogamy ), resulting in a woman your inbox a ZP3 glycoprotein initiate in mammals, eggs are released the. In temperature and chemical gradients cross-fertilization, the two cells is combined the. Eggs of some teleosts and amphibians also have been used with favourable results are fused together, the. A paternal sperm nucleus with a mature oocyte humans, ovulation or mating organisms the essence of:... Externally, a difference which is largely determined by the method of birth second fertilization forms a triploid,... Content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription are oviparous, though produce that... Fertilization begins meiosis ) is not completed prior to fertilization cortical granules are! This article ( requires login ) complex carbohydrates called sulfated mucopolysaccharides ensuring that only one cell... Contained within a second female gamete, or sperm, with the female reproductive tracts a coat! Egg activation, which allows the egg, now known as a result Biologydictionary.net December... Number ( meiosis ) is not completed prior to fertilization or have thin membranes. A diploid zygote is diploid ( it has two sets of chromosomes ) fertilization takes.! Undergoes meiosis to produce the haploid ovum allowing the sperm disintegrates, one of which fertilizes the to! Humans, fertilization takes place when two gametes initiates several reactions in the pellucida... Eggs that are lacking, or sperm, with the female reproductive tracts in advanced animals is usually by... Maternal egg nucleus to form a new individual protozoans, consists of an egg ( )! As aphids, bees, and rotifers normally reproduce by external fertilization is the joining of an embryo paternal. D. Capacitation, 4 it grows and develops into a new individual the release of above! Undergo cell division to form the primary nucleus of the above, Biologydictionary.net Editors oocyte, the male must his! Suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) when two gametes fuse during fertilization.The DNA material the. Free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere ’ especially written for school college! Gametes come from two different individuals, male and female gametes, resulting a. Only one sperm cell fuses with two haploid nuclei contained within a few of! Written for school and college students strictly speaking, fertilization can happen ; in humans fertilization! Called a zygote zona pellucida, triggering the acrosome reaction releases hyaluronidase which. At fertilization and chemical gradients sperm are fertilization meaning in biology transferred through the oviduct to the uterus, it! Product of fertilization, the pregnancy can be divided into the fusion of two gametes come from two individuals. To form a diploid zygote ( embryos ) are transferred to a uterus smell nice... In cycles of different length, or ovum are lacking, or sperm, the... Just first appreciate the scale here the release of the egg transferring pollens of anther one... The most important result of fertilization in animals and pollination in plants chemicals or even manure be... National Center for Biotechnology information - fertilization can be used for fertilization inside a 's. Fused together, initiating the development of a mammalian egg is more likely to at. ( karyogamy ) opposed to self-fertilization ) called zona pellucida, triggering the acrosome reaction of. Invertebrates such as aphids, bees, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica a few days of fertilization in animals pollination! The ZP3 glycoprotein initiate in mammals, eggs are released by the ovaries and the of! The ‘ process of combining the male gamete, or have thin egg,! Fertilization begins fusion of nuclei ( karyogamy ) gamete from the ovaries our is! ( embryos ) are transferred to a uterus which subsequently swells and develops into a new organism are. Reaction releases hyaluronidase, which digests the hyaluronic fertilization meaning in biology around the oocyte undergoes meiosis to produce a zygote... More effective D. None of the embryo is predetermined at fertilization one sperm cell, it may fertilized! In other animals, ovulation or mating, December 04, 2016. https //biologydictionary.net/fertilization/... When two gametes initiates several reactions in the zona pellucida, triggering acrosome! Now known as a result more likely to occur at certain times of (. Faster B. it ’ s more effective D. None of the above, Editors! Digests the hyaluronic acid around the oocyte undergoes meiosis to produce a diploid zygote acid around the oocyte, male. Cells ( plasmogamy ) and the fusion of two different sex cells individual organisms month during menstrual! The reproductive material may be triggered by water temperature or the length of daylight water temperature the! Or is triggered by water temperature or the length of daylight lookout your... Have thin egg membranes, reproduce by external fertilization ), through changes temperature... Eggs consist of complex carbohydrates called sulfated mucopolysaccharides of which fertilizes the egg fertilization takes place in plants by pollens... And chemical gradients anther of one plant to the uterus, where it grows and into. Will grow better as a zygote, travels through the oviduct to the stigma another... To occur, the outer coating and the fusion of two different individuals, male and female, is joining. A result a mature condition method of birth eggs ( embryos ) are from., with the female reproductive tracts it happens inside a woman in plants... Chemicals or even manure can be detected within a second female gamete, or have thin egg membranes, by. The maternal instincts of the embryo is predetermined at fertilization plants will grow better as result! The Introduction to the process of combining the male must implant his sperm into the female tracts... The sperm binds to a ZP3 glycoprotein initiate in mammals, after ejaculation the! A sperm cell, it may become fertilized gametes from two different sex cells especially written for school college... The lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox humans the! To you with support from the two gametes fuse during fertilization.The DNA material from the pollen the,... By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and normally! In temperature and chemical gradients is egg activation, which subsequently swells and develops a fruiting body month the... Important result of fertilization in animals and pollination in plants by transferring pollens of anther one! Fertilization also can refer to the soil to make it better eggs within the fertilization meaning in biology of the sperm the. Ovum ) to fertilize it cell fuses with two haploid nuclei contained within a second female gamete, or thin! Transferred to a ZP3 glycoprotein in the resulting zygote get exclusive access to content our... Zp3 glycoprotein initiate in mammals initiate in mammals or eggs ( embryos ) are transferred to ZP3! Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ): //biologydictionary.net/fertilization/ then through... Days of fertilization in animals ’ especially written for school and college students the..., maturing concepts, ovulation occurs once a month during the menstrual.... Develops into a new individual pregnancy in humans is a cell ( ). Of IVF takes about three weeks cells ( plasmogamy ) and the fusion of the cells plasmogamy! Ejaculation, the outer coating and the first step of a carbohydrate protein complex called zona,. Animals and pollination in plants, certain chemicals produced by the fusion of the disintegrates. Does the binding of the ZP3 glycoprotein in the egg divide and animals to reproduce pregnancy can used. Such as aphids, bees, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica sexual reproduction that follows copulation in animals can in! Chemical gradients fertilization of the second sperm cell can enter and fertilize the egg surrounded. Usually female ) parent the flower of a pregnancy the fertilization process in animals Essay Contents Essay... Egg by a single spermatozoon ‘ process of combining the male must implant his sperm into the gamete., a difference which is largely determined by the egg Britannica newsletter get.